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Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking 2



Oproep tot het indienen van voorstellen en verwante activiteiten onder het werkplan voor 2015 van de Gemeenschappelijke Onderneming Brandstofcellen en Waterstof 2 (H2020-JTI-FCH-2015-1):

1. Low cost and durable PEMFCs for transport applications (FCH-01.1-2015)

In order to demonstrate the validity of the individual component improvements despite the competing electrochemical phenomena, demonstration of a full sized stack is mandatory. The following key objectives must be addressed by the project collaboration:

  • Validate performance and durability of single cells or small stacks with adequate cross section area for automotive applications (> 150 cm2). Both experimental and modelling evaluation has to be taken into consideration
  • Understand component and stack degradation mechanisms in real operating conditions using both experimental and modelling approaches
  • Align specifications and interfaces for each component and architecture with special attention to interface optimisation between each component (GDL/electrodes, electrodes/membranes, BP/MEA…)
  • Define, achieve and evaluate new architectures and prototypes optimizing electrochemistry, water and heat management
  • Generate inputs for further development of advanced fuel cell system components in order to fulfil broader requirements of OEMs
  • Transfer of proposals for optimization of Balance-of-Plant components development according to optimized component operating conditions.

The following optional objectives can also be addressed by the project collaboration:

  • Select, modify and adapt components and associated production processes complying with the agreed operations conditions
  • Develop new synthesis and manufacturing methods for MEA components (i.e. catalyst layers, gas diffusion layers…) with optimised structure consistent with operating conditions in order to increase catalyst utilization and durability
  • Develop stack prototypes optimized for the assembling in the process chain Benchmark components and architectures respectively with respect to the operating conditions (passenger cars, buses, material handling equipment…)
  • Identify the most suitable standardized protocols, to qualify components
  • Improve mass manufacturing methods for sheet metal BPP, low cost coatings and sealing
  • Investigate dismantling of components and recycling of the critical materials

Expected impact:

Identify and select PEMFC components suitable to reach the main followings KPIs as described in the MAWP:

  • Power density: 1 W/cm2 at 1.5 A/cm2 (at BoL= Begin of Life)
  • Durability: > 6,000 hours (with a nominal power loss < 10 %)
  • FC stack production cost: 50 €/kW at 50 000 units/year production rate

The following key results must be achieved by the project collaboration:

  • Identification and selection of components and their architectures to reach OEM requirements correlated with degradation mechanisms in real operating conditions by means of combined virtual (simulation based) and experimental techniques
  • Development of catalysts and electrode layers with higher mass activity and increased durability allowing for significant reduction in precious metal catalyst loadings or the use of low cost non-platinum group metal catalysts. These should be corrosion resistant, preferably compatible with higher temperature operation (about 120°C) and able to mitigate the consequence of fuel starvation events
  • Development of GDLs and MPLs designed for increased diffusivity, improved water management and heat conduction. GDL thickness has to minimized but be compatible with production in high volumes
  • Design of BPPs with optimised interface with new MEAs in terms of geometry, protective and conductive coating for long lifetime, corrosion stability and production process
  • Design of high performance MEAs using above components. Development of membrane materials suitable for automotive applications (low RH, higher temperature and dynamic load cycling operation)
  • Techno-economic assessment showing that material, design, components & prototypes are compatible with the stringent cost and durability targets for commercialization of FCEVs

The following optional results can be considered by the project collaboration:

  • Demonstrate performances and durability using accelerated test protocols as defined in previous JTI projects (FCTESTNET, FCTESQA, STACKTEST) and the current harmonisation exercise
  • Validate the full value chain of components from the manufacturing up to the stack integration. Proposed components and prototypes should be optimised for easy dismantling and recycling of materials at the end of their active life
  • Develop low cost seals with low O2 permeation rates
  • Standardization potential of components consistent with higher production volumes

2. Diagnostics and control for increased fuel cell system lifetime in automotive applications (FCH-01.2-2015)

The project will focus on reducing the degradation to a minimum by means of control actions guided by condition monitoring and diagnostics. Activities will be devoted to developing diagnostics and control-based solutions to extend the lifetime of the present generation of automotive fuel cell systems, based on one hand, on the current scientific knowledge in degradation of fuel cells and balance-of-plant (BoP) components and, on the other hand, on feedback from past and on-going projects with the potential application also for future generations of automotive fuel cells.

The project is aimed at addressing the following objectives:

  • Enhanced understanding of component and stack degradation mechanisms in real operating conditions using both experimental and modelling approaches in order to define the most suitable and efficient monitoring and diagnostic tools
  • Development of appropriate monitoring and diagnostic methods for observing degradation of automotive fuel cells and BoP components, requiring no or only minor modifications to existing systems to be implemented
  • Development of cost-effective control methods for automotive fuel cell systems, with the ability of minimising the progress of degradation in fuel cells when integrated with the diagnostic methods mentioned above; Preferentially, these methods should be modular, easily portable to other systems and not tied to a specific technology or design
  • Implementation of the developed diagnostics and control systems in a prototype with a special focus of power management between FC system and battery pack. The implementation will be chosen among the classes of FCEVs identified in the MAWP: passenger cars and buses
  • Demonstration of the prototype in operation, preferably in relevant environmental conditions, for a length of time sufficient to quantify the gains in terms of system lifetime obtained by the implementation of the new diagnostics and control system
  • Validation of the applicability of the developed methods on future generations of fuel-cell system

The FC stack hardware may also be within the scope to be funded, although it is not the focus of the innovation. The FC stack is required to demonstrate the system level performance and may therefore be adapted from existing technology.

Expected impact:

  • Reduce the fuel cell system cost including the additional cost of the diagnostics and control system, below the following thresholds, corresponding to the 2020 FCH2 JU targets:
  1. 100 €/kW for passenger cars at 50,000 units
  2. 1000 €/kW (or 500 €/kW)[[Depending whether the bus system will be composed by one larger bus fuel cell stack or two passenger car stacks]] for buses at 200 units
  • Attain the FCH 2 JU targets for lifetime of automotive fuel cell systems for 2020; since several of these targets would require one or two years to validate in real time, while validation with real time operation is preferred, they may also be validated with proven accelerated protocols or proven prognostic methods:
  1. 6,000 h for passenger cars
  2. 15,000 h (or 2 x 8000 h)[[Depending whether the bus system will be composed by one larger bus fuel cell stack or two passenger car stacks, and hence will have to be replaced once during the lifetime targets.]] for buses

3. Development of Industrialization-ready PEMFC systems and system components (FCH-01.3-2015)

The project should focus on the improved industrialization-ready designs of high efficiency and low cost Balance-of-Plant (BoP) PEMFC system components on the cathode side (compressor, humidification, intercooler, valves, and turbine/expander). The FC stack is also within the scope to be funded, although it is not the focus of the innovation. The FC stack is required to demonstrate the system level performance and may therefore be adapted from existing technology.

Development of a new generation of systems using cost engineering to identify cost reduction potentials for each component and perform design-to-cost activities and trade-offs with other BoP components. As an example: low O2 permeation valves can be used to reduce O2 ingress into the stack and thus decreasing start-up (SU) degradation. The project must include durability testing of the components (or testing at the system level if meaningful) under automotive conditions.

The project must address the following key issues:

  • Novel system prototypes that eliminate or reduce issues currently experienced with PEMFC systems such as voltage cycling, SU/SD corrosion which leads to increased degradation
  • Freeze start design and system component layout to minimize water pooling and consequent ice blockages and reduction of thermal mass to enable faster start up at sub-zero temperatures
  • Air compressor prototypes that simultaneously
  1. provide higher efficiency at max load point to enable reduction of parasitic power while providing increased durability
  2. meet automotive dynamic requirements (0-90% power in 0,5s)
  3. improve flow vs. pressure operating window at low current densities

Optionally the project can also address the following issues:

  • Turbine/expanders prototypes that reduce parasitic losses with high recovery efficiency.
  • New humidification prototypes that simultaneously
  1. improve water transfer rates between wet and dry side
  2. improve durability to meet automotive requirements of 6,000h
  3. minimize packaging space
  4. reduce pressure drop
  • Intercoolers (gas-to-gas or gas-to-liquid) that simultaneously
  1. high thermal transfer efficiency
  2. minimize package space
  3. reduce pressure drop

To insure the usefulness of the results for the automotive industry, the following methodologies are required:

  • Automotive development methods, design to cost, reliability and robustness methods
  • Detailed component level simulation for analysis and optimization (e.g. of multiphase transport and phase transition processes including multi-component diffusion and mixing phenomena of humidifiers etc.)
  • Sub-system and system level simulation for component specification and assessment of overall performance of different component configurations
  • Automated-/hardware-in-the-loop-/accelerated testing methods

Expected impact:

By addressing design to manufacturing and cost engineering tools, further cost-down potential should be reached on the main BoP components, thus bringing costs in line with positive business cases at the system level, not only for OEMs but also for the entire supply chain.

The project must show that the proposed BoP solutions support the targets at the FC system level. Details on the trade-offs between stack and BoPs including cost estimation are expected. All projects must also produce validated evidence of lifetimes; cost targets and efficiencies throughout life.

The following KPIs are expected to be reached at the FC system level:

  • FC system production cost: 100 €/kW at 50 000 units/year production rate
  • Maximum power degradation of 10% after 6000 h for passenger cars

Cold Start: Improved freeze start up performance and reliability closer to standard automotive conditions

4. Adaptation of existing fuel cell components and systems from road to non-road applications (FCH-01.4-2015)

The overall objective of the projects in this topic is to bring non-road vehicles from TRL 4 to TRL 6. The achievement will be based on adaptation of road LT PEM Fuel Cell system components to non-road vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, airport ground vehicles, trains, harbour taxies and smaller ships as substitutes to battery systems and ICE systems on pre-existing vehicles/vessels and non-road vehicles/vessels. Any kind of applications could be addressed such as ships, trains and aircraft. Material handling vehicles are considered outside the scope of this topic.

Examples of adaptation of pre-existing components devoted to cars and buses could be:

  • The size and/or the catalyst loading of MEA,
  • Alternative high resistant coating on metallic bipolar plates used for automotive application,
  • Power management and hybridization technology

but produced with the same processes as used for cars and buses in order to increase the scale effect but taking into account specific size restriction with more severe operating conditions (corrosion, temperature…)

The achievements should be validated on the economic and environmental model versus reference battery vehicles and ICE solutions.

  • The on-road vehicles EU outdoor capabilities can be implemented in non-road vehicles
  • Hydrogen storage technology transferred to the non-road segment
  • Low temperature PEMFC stacks and components can be shared between several applications
  • BoP components from on-road can be adapted
  • Power and control strategies adapted

Expected impact:

The technical goals of this topic are:

  • Identify components and systems where the development, learning and volume from road vehicles can be transferred to non-road vehicles
  • Identify ways to adapt components and systems for specific non-road applications
  • Identify value proposition of each component and sub-system and prioritize efforts to implement or redesign components for implementation in non-road vehicles
  • Implement chosen components and sub-systems in non-road fuel cell power unit

The project should meet the technical milestone from the MAWP in 2020:

  • Specific FC system cost: < 1200 €/kW @ 10kW
  • Hydrogen storage system cost: < 750 €/kg H2
  • Lifetime: > 10 000 h
  • Efficiency: > 52%
  • Availability: > 98%
  • Power Range <250kW

5. Develop technologies for achieving competitive solutions for APU transport applications based on existing technology (FCH-01.5-2015)

The overall objective is to design, develop and test APU fuel cell systems against realistic specific requirements covering the main application field, i.e. on- and off-road vehicles. Requirements of other applications have to be collected and considered as far as possible. The project should also address auxiliary subsystems optimization on the basis of automotive FC systems for road propulsion.

In more detail, the objective of this project is to develop low cost fuel cell APU systems for transport application by means of latest system and component level RTD methodologies and tools. Also all balance of plant components need to be addressed. After key component and system testing, the components and systems shall be further developed towards the target system for the surface transport APU application. Design-to-cost methodologies shall be applied to analyse cost and to identify cost reduction opportunities for further improvements of the respective components.

Project proposals should focus on development of APU systems which can be integrated in (already existing) vehicles. Consortia shall define and identify all external operating conditions which are specific to the particular application. All transport applications are eligible under this topic.

Projects are expected to cover the following top-level objectives:

  • Electric power output relevant for real life operations depending on the actual application.
  • Significant improvement of the complete powertrain efficiency due to integration of a fuel cell APU
  • Integration of fuel cell APUs into final application with the coupling to pre-existing electric (e.g. battery) systems in order to optimize the whole energy chain on board.
  • Advanced hybrid operating strategies enabling elimination of idling or warm-up losses etc.
  • Validation of the results in a prototype APU systems in applications under real world operating conditions including monitoring for operating feedback analysis for further developments
  • Prototype testing in a relevant end user environment
  • Proof of the safety of the FC system for embedded applications due the integration and system architecture with regards to safety needs

Expected impact:

Overall impacts of the results of the project have to be:

  • Tank-to-electricity efficiency of at least 35%
  • Cost reduction of the APU system enabling a return of investment period of the APU system of below 2 years
  • Lifetime to be compatible with the selected vehicle application
  • Minimized fuel cell APU system packaging volume/weight to be compatible with the selected vehicle application

All projects must produce validated evidence of lifetimes, cost targets, performance and efficiency throughout laboratory- and field tests.

6. Development of cost effective manufacturing technologies for key components or fuel cell systems (FCH-02.6-2015)

Projects should support development and use best in class manufacturing technologies, production processes, equipment and tooling with cost impact on, for example, stacks, reformers, pre-heaters, BOP and heat exchangers. Optimised production processes for mass manufacturing can include automated assembly, shortened cycle times, continuous production and lean manufacturing with little waste and should be compatible with environmental and health standards. Thus development and adaption of production processes with fewer steps, more tolerant to varying quality of raw materials and with lower-cost materials or materials with reduced environmental or health impacts are important tasks as well as advanced quality control methods.

Innovative manufacturing technologies could also be considered to provide complex design solutions with increased performance while allowing for lower cost levels compared to conventional production technologies.

Pilot plants are excluded.

To achieve cost reduction projects may also aim to develop industry-wide agreements for standard BoP components for FCs, including heat exchangers, reformers, converters, inverters, post-combustors, actuators and sensors. Reaching this target it’s necessary to establish a resilient supply chain with respect of REACH Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, OJ L 396, 30.12.2006, p.1) and other regulations impacting on manufacturing.

  • Residential (0.3 – 5 kW): start TRL 5, end TRL 8
  • Commercial (5 – 400 kW): start TRL 4, end TRL 6
  • Industrial (0.4 – 10 MW): start TRL 4, end TRL 6

Expected impact:

Projects will enable important players in the fuel cell system segment to implement technologies enabling the step-up from small scale production towards higher volumes. Increased manufacturing capacity by elimination of slow processes and automation of highly manual intensive processing steps will lead to lower manufacturing costs which are the most critical factor towards real market competiveness. Innovative manufacturing technologies could also contribute for cost reduction and reduced time to market.

The project should focus on the following impact:

  • Confirmation of KPI of the MAWP of at least 97% availability due to implemented quality systems in established production lines, availability shown in relevant environment
  • Potential cost reduction of key components to achieve overall system CAPEX of
  1. Max. 12,000 €/kW as KPI target for residential micro-CHP for single family homes and small buildings (0.3 - 5 kW, residential) in the MAWP less than 7,500 €/kW for systems of 5-400 kW (commercial)
  2. Less than 3,000 €/kW for the 0.4-10 MW (industrial) segment.
  • Demonstrate manufacturing flexibility, by allowing reduction of time to market for new concepts by 20-30%, compared to traditional manufacturing lines

and possibly address in addition to that also:

  • Demonstrate potential for cost reduction of at least 50%, compared to state of the art, once mass production is achieved

7. MW or multi-MW demonstration of stationary fuel cells (FCH-02.7-2015)

This demonstration activity will focus on MW or multi-MW demonstration in order to:

  • Demonstrate the feasibility (technical and commercial) for MW or multi MW stationary FC’s in a commercial/industrial application, also relative to the use of heat, for which the needed heat recovery equipment is included
  • Demonstrate the feasibility (technical and commercial) for MW or multi-MW stationary FC in large commercial or industrial applications, also relative to process integration of heat or heat/cold
  • Establish confidence for further market deployment actions in other sectors, e.g. next demonstration of MW or multi-MW solutions for grid support
  • Prepare the ground for successful implementation of European stationary MW-class fuel cell industry (technology and manufacturing settlement) and to achieve further reductions in product cost and development of the value chain

Core features of the FC such as efficiency, cost, durability and lifetime must comply with relevant MAWP targets and the global competition; these values have been compiled on the expected impact chapter. This demonstration must not only raise public awareness; it should be used to establish confidence in technology, business models and market readiness with key customers in the food, pharma, chemical industry or other sectors. The project should be advanced with market enablers (such as utilities, leading project developers in construction and energy business) to achieve volume contracts and with financiers to assure access to project financing.

The selected project will target primarily demonstration of MW-class FC solutions in the commercial/industrial market segments integrating both of the following:

  • 1 MW up to several MW capacity production of power and heat from methane (natural gas or natural gas quality gas) or power from hydrogen
  • Integration of a FC power plant in commercial/industrial processes

The project should aim at creating partnerships between end users, industry, local SMEs, financiers and local authorities, in order to ensure that the solutions are replicable and can be supported or financed by various public or private organizations.

Therefore the project should:

  • Validate real demonstration units in commercial/industrial applications with adequate visibility so that suppliers, stake holders and end users may benefit from the experience gained throughout the value chain
  • Develop and reinforce business plan and service strategy during the project so that they will be replicable and validated in the chosen market segment after the project

Expected impact:

The project should focus on the following impacts:

  • Reduce the overall energy costs
  • Building and validating references to build trust among the stakeholders
  • Reduction of the use of primary energy by
  1. Electrical efficiency > 45%
  2. Total efficiency > 70% (as an example heat cycle: 45°C/30°C, LHV)

and possibly address in addition to that also:

  • Supplier and user experience of installation/commissioning, operation and use of distributed power generation
  • Enable active participation of consumers in order to bring the fuel cells technology closer to their daily business
  • Reduction of the CO2 emissions with respect to the national grid by > 10%
  • Reduction of the CAPEX (no transport, installation, project management, no heat use equipment) towards < 4,000 €/kW for systems ≥1 MW 3,000-3,500 €/kW for systems ≥ 2 MW
  • Reduction of the maintenance costs (full service including stack replacement) towards to < 0.05 €/kWh for systems < 2 MW and towards < 0.035 €/kWh for larger systems
  • Increase the fuel cell system lifetime towards 20 years of operation (stack replacement included, as referred on the cost reduction goals)
  • Demonstrate a technically and financially viable solution, including the identification of hydrogen sources (if applicable), and a replicable business case

It is envisaged that the project will also bring societal benefits such as:

  • Economic growth and new jobs at the local level, including supply-chain jobs
  • Great basis for further growth of the industry providing MW-class FCs
  • Energy security and improved reliability

Any event (accidents, incidents, near misses) that may occur during the project execution shall be reported into the European reference database HIAD (Hydrogen Incident and Accident Database) at https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/engineering-databases.html.

8. Sub-MW demonstration of stationary fuel cells fuelled with biogas from biowaste treatment (FCH-02.8-2015)

This innovation activity will focus on demonstrating the technical and commercial feasibility of sub-MW stationary FC’s directly fuelled by biogas produced from bio-waste treatment processes, aiming at full process integration of heat use in the digester process or the digestate treatment. In this way confidence shall be established for the further application of FC systems for the exploitation of this resource, which could radically leverage the deployment of stationary FC across Europe, allowing the achievement of further reductions in product cost and development of the value chain.

Core features of the FC such as efficiency, cost, emissions, durability and lifetime must comply with relevant MAWP targets and the global competition; these values have been compiled on the expected impact chapter.

The projects will target primarily demonstration of a sub-MW FC solution in the biogas/-waste market segment addressing the following:

  • Between 100 kW and 1 MW capacity production of power and heat from bio gas, provided by bio waste treatment processes
  • Full, steady-state process integration of the FC system with the biogas producing process, in terms of power requirements and heat management
  • Raw biogas processing and upgrading for durable conversion in the FC stack including the needed clean-up and detection equipment

The scope or the technology should have a clear difference or a clear progress relative to the wastewater project of the AWP2014-2.11.

The project should aim at creating partnerships between end users, industry, local SMEs, financiers and local authorities, in order to ensure that the solutions are replicated and can be financed through various sources. Therefore the project should:

  • Validate real demonstration units in representative applications in order to enable suppliers, various stake holders and end users to gain experience throughout the value chain
  • Assess the technical opportunities and bottle-necks across the sector of biogas producing facilities for an accurate mapping of feasibility of the FC integrated system in Europe
  • Develop and reinforce business plan and service strategy during the project that will be replicable and validated in the chosen market segment after the project

Expected impact:

This demonstration must not only raise public awareness; it should be used to establish confidence in technology, business models and market readiness with key customers in the food, waste management or other industry accessing biogas from biowaste. The project could be advanced with market enablers (such as utilities, leading project developers in construction and energy business) to achieve volume contracts and with financiers to assure access to project financing.

The project should focus on the following impacts:

  • Supplier and user experience of installation/commissioning, operation and use of power generation in the bio-waste sector, also relative to tailored biogas cleaning
  • Clear awareness among the current investors in biogas producing plants of the added value of FC integration
  • Demonstrate a viable solution and a replicable business case

and possibly address in addition to that also:

  • Validated references to build trust among the stakeholders
  • Active participation of consumers in order to bring the fuel cells technology closer to their daily business
  • Reduction of the CO2 emissions with respect to the national grid by > 10%
  • Reduction of the use of primary energy by
  1. Electrical efficiency > 45%
  2. Total efficiency > 70% (heat cycle: 45°C/30°C, LHV)
  • Reduction of the FC-system CAPEX (no transport, installation, project management, no heat use and biogas clean-up equipment) towards 3,000 – 3,500 €/kW for systems near 1 MW and towards 6,000-6,500 €/kW for systems near 100 kW
  • Reduction of the maintenance costs (full service including stack replacement) of the FC-system (without heat use and biogas clean-up equipment) towards < 0.035 €/kWh (near 1 MW) and towards < 0.050 €/kWh (near 100 kW)

Increase the fuel cell system lifetime towards 20 years of operation (stack replacement included, as referred on the cost reduction goals). It is envisaged that the proposals will also bring societal benefits such as:

  • Improved round-trip efficiency and sustainability of processing organic waste streams
  • Economic growth and new jobs at the local level, including supply-chain jobs
  • Great basis for further growth of the industry providing FC systems tailored to the rapidly growing sector of biogas producing plants
  • Energy security and improved reliability

Any event (accidents, incidents, near misses) that may occur during the project execution shall be reported into the European reference database HIAD (Hydrogen Incident and Accident Database) at https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/engineering-databases.html.

9. Large scale demonstration of µCHP fuel cells (FCH-02.9-2015)

The main focus of this topic is to initiate a second generation large scale demonstration of µCHP fuel cells destined for the residential and small commercial applications (0.3-5 kW); it will require further improvements of units/system concepts demonstrated in previous initiatives and build upon those results. This represents the second step of demonstration for the manufacturers (incl. all types of FC technologies) at a more advanced phase of the learning curve (i.e. ramp-up phase) which will ensure ramp-up in the range of 2.500 units in one/two-family homes (eventually small commercial applications in Europe).

The technology and system integration aspects in the <5kW part of topic 2.6 are closely linked to this topic and synergies between these topics should therefore be sought within the scope of these projects. This topic puts significant focus on the further development of the FC stack, being the main innovative element in a FC system and a prerequisite for the success and competitiveness of the European µCHP sector in future. The project scope should also address the practical functionality of the system, with the synergies from topic 2.6, including further improved and validated BoP components in terms of concept, robustness and increased lifetimes, while exploring the possibility for standardisation; the integration in Europe’s energy system with higher rates of RES (e.g. as VPP), stabilisation/standardisation of supply chains; innovative marketing and sales strategies, innovative business models, implementation of financial facilities; finally, the upgrading of already developed solutions such as monitoring, control, diagnosis, lifetime estimation should be addressed too.

The project should mainly:

  • Demonstrate in the field in the range of 2,500 µCHP units with at least 500 units or 500 kWel per manufacturer and a minimum of 3 manufacturers; these manufacturers should have been successful in first generation field-trials (successful operation of min. 250,000 kWh produced cumulated and fleet availability of at least 90% in previous field-trials for at least 100 units or 100kWel is a pre-requisite)
  • Demonstrate, evaluate and optimize new solutions and components especially at the FC stack level but also on systems levels through field tests with improved product concepts e.g. pre-serial status as compared to previous field trials, by validating next generations of product designs
  • Increase lifetime of stack and other components of BoP; each manufacturer has to double the stack lifetime during the project as compared to the state-of-art figures
  • Test and demonstration of new models, among the 2500 units, which should minimize installation efforts and installation failures
  • Increase robustness of fuel cell system to achieve availability of at least 99% in the fleet to be demonstrated
  • Test and demonstration of remote control models with regards of grid stability support of Virtual Fuel Cell Power Plants as part of Europe’s future renewable energy system
  • Establish a demonstration/commercialisation pathway for European SMEs innovating in the development, manufacture and supply chain of fuel cell µCHP components
  • Verification of heat and power contracting business models for applicable markets by the manufacturers present in the project
  • Specifically identify further installation sites as base for large scale deployment; Establish a “technical label” assuring the financial viability for system installation for further installation sites
  • Establish the basis and further develop, if possible marketing and sales strategies of European µCHP manufacturers; qualify to open the access to conventional financing for customers, be it private households, utilities or other kinds; proven solid business model in practical manner for a significant number of systems providing pathways to allow full commercial deployment
  • Increase awareness in European markets for µCHP fuel cells

It is expected that the applicants in the consortium will have significant experience of manufacturing, installing and testing fuel cell µCHP units; participating manufacturers have to present a clear strategy on how to grow their installed base, this demonstration presenting a stepping stone for growth beyond. This strategy needs to be in line with the corporation’s strategic targets and is expected to be part of bigger additional activities plan. Marketing, sales and deployment plans need to be approved on strategic level of the company, i.e. by senior executive management of the sales and after-sales organisation of the manufacturer. Each manufacturer has to show recent value created in a European member state in at least 3 EU member states, e.g. by creation and protection of jobs in Europe, strengthening of existing or establishment of new competitive key suppliers for the FCH industry.

The project will also demonstrate through field applications the advantages of innovative technologies (hardware or software) including, but not limited to, monitoring, control, diagnosis, lifetime estimation, new BoP components. Furthermore, any methodology that may improve the knowledge and the quantification of those processes causing lifetime and performance reduction may be considered as a valuable solution to be tested and demonstrated in the field. The project will implement each solution on a limited scale basis for the purpose of demonstrating their feasibility and the advantages brought to the on-board application.

The project is linked with topic FCH.02.6-2015 (Development of cost effective manufacturing technologies for key components or fuel cell systems) to enable demonstration in the field of new developed components and manufacturing processes. Data gained in the project should be fed into the HIAD database.

The project is encouraged to look for additional/complimentary funding from regional or National funding bodies which should result in demonstration of additional number of units, up to the necessary total number of units for this second generation stage (about 10.000 units, according to the Roland Berger Study, before starting the deployment phase).

Expected impact:

The project shall explicitly strengthen the European value chain in particular for the critical components such as fuel cell stack, reformers (incl. desulphurization), special heat exchangers, inverters, etc. Proposals have to explain which of these issues can be addressed by scaling up in order to strengthen European industry competiveness. This large scale demonstration will as well initiate the drive to achieving economies of scale and hence significantly reduce costs enabling further phase roll-outs/deployment stage to be funded at lower rates by Member States after 2020.

The proposals are expected to have the impacts described below:

  • The main objective of this topic is to achieve significant improvements in the technical and economic performance of the FC stack and its manufacturing:
  1. Reduction of the FC stack production cost with at least 30%
  2. Application of innovative production methods, demonstrated through increase of production capacity with at least 30% and an increased share of automation
  3. Improving the lifetime of the stack and demonstrate the durability in relation to thermal cycling
  • The above is expected to contribute, together with progress in the system integration to a capital cost (CAPEX) reduction of at least 30% on FC system level compared to today’s average system costs, aiming at a level of less than 10.000 €/kW which can provide the right level of competiveness for large deployment phase after 2020
  • Increased system lifetime to more than 15 years and maintenance interval by new/improved components (e.g. in case of new desulphurisation component: new solutions should be found and demonstrated to provide maintenance free over lifetime, which would lower the maintenance costs, OPEX significantly and therefore improve LCOE/RoI for the customer side)
  • Contribute to significant further capital cost reduction enable to tightened start investments in European production facilities for further ramp-up in European markets
  • Reinforce European supply chain of critical key components by e.g. a higher range of common/standardised parts to be produced in Europe
  • Stimulate private investments in production lines and facilities in Europe from today’s yearly ‘hand-made’ volumes (50 – 100) to a capability of minimum yearly 1,000 systems
  • Generate cost decreases on core components potentially transferable to other product families and enabling accelerated product deployment in the commercial size FC market segment in principle
  • Explore the implementation of financial facilities that provide capital for the next step of µCHP deployment, e.g. through the European Investment Bank, market incentive schemes in addressed EU markets, etc.

10. Large scale demonstration of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations and FCEV road vehicles - including buses and on site electrolysis (FCH-03.1-2015)

This topic calls for a large scale demonstration project covering FCEVs and HRSs, coupled to decentralized electrolysers, to be deployed in alignment with and in cooperation with national or/and regional roll-out activities. Demonstration of electrolyser integrated HRS operating in grid balancing mode in a selection of the new HRS installed will also be covered.


For vehicles, the project will cover the roll-out of a fleet of at least 200 FCEVs. This should comprise multiple OEM supplied passenger cars, utility vehicles (light duty vans, medium duty trucks) and buses. Other vehicles can be included provided they can demonstrate a strong business case a significant market potential (10,000’s per year) and have reached a TRL of 7 or above.

The majority of FCEV's are expected to be using a fuel cell system as the key power source, and 70MPa storage in the case of passenger cars or 35 MPa for buses. Storage systems lower than 70MPa can be allowed if relevant and there is a business and customer case for inclusion in the proposal. Range extenders using FCs are also eligible if relevant and can show a clear advantage over all-electric drivetrains for the same vehicle type.

The minimum operation for passenger cars is 36 months or 45,000 km. For buses it should be 36 months in operational service at minimum 10h/day (unless regulatory restrictions prohibit 10h). The minimum operational period for vehicles introduced in the last 15 months of the project is 12 months or 10,000 km for passenger cars and 12 months or 50,000 km for buses, though in both cases arrangements for extending operation after the end of the project are expected.


In this topic, the focus is on demonstrating at least 20 HRS in operation and on investigating the specific problems arising from the need to provide high volumes of hydrogen per day while offering satisfactory service to HRS customers in terms of refuelling duration per vehicle (back to back refuelling performance). It is expected that HRS will prove performance under high load. In addition, proposals are expected to address reliability, metering accuracy, purity and station efficiency.

When addressing the passenger car market, HRS facilities need to be accessible for private customers/users and should preferably be integrated in forecourts of conventional refuelling stations. When addressing the utility vehicle market or local fleets, HRS facilities might be located on private forecourts, with or without public access, as long as several customers are already identified as long term users of the HRS. The first HRS need to be operational at the latest 24 months after the start of the project. The majority of the HRS have to be operational no later than 36 months after project start. The minimum operation for the HRS is 5 years (operation beyond the project life is expected.

The project should aim at benchmarking and establishing links between existing regional and national initiatives in order to synchronize actions and maximize impact Europe wide. The demonstration sites for passenger cars, buses, utility vehicles and vans must be located in more than one EU member state where H2 Mobility initiatives, or similar initiatives (like HIT) aiming at deployment of hydrogen based mobility programmes are in place, to leverage the activities already underway. HRS should be sited to provide interconnectivity with existing initiatives to create a plausible driving experience both within and between the networks. In view of the requirement to evaluate HRS under high load, consideration should also be given to locations with a high number of users, addressing both privately owned or fleet vehicles.

Different options for the ownership and investment in HRS should be analysed and tested.

On-site hydrogen production & grid support

The project should demonstrate the use of fluctuating renewable energy sources for hydrogen supplied to the HRS:

  • Develop a model of the required electrical behaviour of various penetrations of electrolysers and HRS for grid balancing in a range of future scenarios of renewable power penetration and mobility hydrogen demand. The model should provide the most economic favourable scenarios based on a multi-market service strategy
  • Identify preferred electrolyser and HRS design, including control configurations, for providing the required balancing services and match the local hydrogen demand on the stations and for other applications
  • Identify operational frameworks (including pooling when needed) for grid operators to utilise electrolysers for balancing services and quantify the associated remuneration. The extent to which electrolysers can assist with meeting energy storage requirements in the EU for the period 2020-2050 should be determined.
  • Demonstrate cost effective and optimised running strategies for a cluster of electrolysers acting as a single capacity in the energy market. This includes electrolyser load decisions based on electricity cost, electrolyser efficiency at different loads and hydrogen demand at individual stations
  • The electrolysis technology must demonstrate an electricity consumption below 60 kWh/kgH2 and a capital cost @ rated power including ancillary equipment and commissioning of 6 - 8 M€ / (t/d) for PEM technology and 4 – 6 M€ / (t/d) for alkaline technology
  • The forecourt electrolysers must demonstrate an optimized integration of the electrolysis with the refuelling station including buffer tanks sizing consistent with the operating modes selected

Safety assessment shall include the social acceptance dimension.


Measurement, monitoring and evaluation of specific vehicle and fuelling station parameters using methodology such as those used in current projects funded by the FCH JU. The project shall prepare for the use of low-carbon hydrogen and aim to reduce the carbon intensity of the hydrogen refuelled by at least 50% on a well-to wheel basis as compared to new gasoline and diesel vehicles. The results of the CertifHy Project will be taken into account in the analysis of the emissions.

Ensuring that the knowledge acquired throughout the project will help to provide the confidence to underpin future investment and policy decisions in favour of hydrogen vehicles is of key importance. Therefore priority will be given to proposals presenting a comprehensive programme to gather new learning from the project in terms of: customer acceptance, techniques for the operation of a station network, business models for national HRS roll-out, technology performance (and requirements for improvement, using the HyLights methodology) and the impact of different national policies on roll-out effectiveness.

A formal, inclusive and creative dissemination programme is required which ensures that the lessons learnt by the project are made available to wider public. In particular, it should be ensured that countries considering development of similar FCEVs/HRS roll-out initiatives should have an easy access to information generated by the consortium.

Expected impact:


At least 80% of the vehicles to be deployed in the project should be “next” generation and based on model platforms made available / released in Europe after 1st January 2015). A number of older vehicle models can be accepted where these are introduced in the early stage of the project to help improve HRS loading levels.

Technical targets for passenger cars:

  • >6,000h vehicle operation lifetime
  • The key power source of vehicles must be a fuel cell system (except for light duty vans, medium duty trucks and other vehicles proposed based on a range extender concept or optimized combinations of hybrid drives)
  • Vehicle range > 400 km
  • Fuel cell system MTBF >1,000 km
  • Availability >98% (to be measured against available operational time)
  • Tank-to-wheel efficiency >42%, measured in the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC)
  • Pilot series production ability has to be shown

Technical targets for buses:

  • >15,000h / 2 x 8,000h[[Depending whether the bus system will be composed by one larger bus fuel cell stack or two passenger car stacks, respectively, and hence will have to be replaced once during the lifetime targeted]] vehicle operation lifetime initially, minimum 20,000h lifetime as program target
  • The key power source of vehicles must be a fuel cell system
  • Fuel cell system MTBF >2,500 km
  • Availability >90% (to be measured in available operation time)
  • Tank-to-wheel efficiency >42%, for buses measured in the SORT 1 & 2 drive cycles.
  • Pilot series production ability has to be shown

Utility vehicles (light duty vans and medium duty trucks) and other vehicles must demonstrate that their specifications meet the requirements of a mainstream customer for the vehicle type included. They should also demonstrate that the vehicles will have reached a TRL of 7 or above by the time of deployment in the project.

For vehicles deployed early in the project the funding contribution will not exceed 500 € per kW of installed power in passenger cars and other vehicles where the fuel cell is the key power source, and will not exceed 2000 € per kW where the fuel cell acts as a range extender. For buses, the funding per vehicle cannot exceed 3500 € per kW of installed power. For vehicles deployed 3 years after project commencement and to reflect cost reductions brought by new vehicles the funding contribution will not exceed 200 € per kW for passenger cars, 1800/750 €/kW[[Depending whether the bus system will be composed by one larger bus fuel cell stack or two passenger car stacks, respectively]] for buses and 700 €/kW for FC-range extenders (limited to 30 kW). Overall, a minimum of 80% of the FCEVs funded will be at the lower of the funding contribution levels indicated.


Assessment of progress towards overcoming the barriers to the roll-out of FCEVs (it is expected that substantial advances in comparison to the state-of-the-art to five of nine of the issues below will be proposed and trialled in the project):

  • Metering of hydrogen: As current standard dispensing technology is offering a level of metering accuracy of circa 5%, improvements leading to a level of accuracy reaching circa 1% should be considered
  • Quality Assurance issues around hydrogen purity: Progress towards definition of an industry acceptable hydrogen quality compliance system is targeted
  • Integration of hydrogen into conventional vehicle fuel forecourts: 2 options for integrating HRS are to be considered: semi-integration with separate hydrogen dispensing unit from the main conventional fuels distribution versus full integration within the existing distribution system
  • Achieving a high level of availability for HRS: Improvements towards 98% HRS availability
  • Optimization of HRS layout and reduction of safety distances for HRS integrated in service-stations
  • Improved efficiency/performance for HRS:
  1. level of back to back vehicle performance to be defined as function of HRS utilization factor (minimum of 5 for passenger cars / LDVs)
  2. energy consumption targeted at 4kW/kg H2
  3. optimization of compressor management
  4. optimization of cold temperature process management
  • Key RCS issues for HRS such as those related to optimized safety distances and fuelling protocol to be addressed in order to facilitate permitting/approval
  • Standard Operation procedures for refuelling
  • Increased availability of hydrogen from renewable sources: level of targeted decarbonization of the hydrogen fuel must be defined according to the national/regional sustainable on-going production roadmap(s)

Furthermore, HRS are expected to comply with the following requirements:

  • For passenger cars, provide a clear and configured HRS network, with practical FCEV driving distances between HRS (in the order of 200 km). For utility vehicles based on the captive fleet model, a realistic fleet of vehicles (up to 30 per station) must be demonstrated together with a vision of how the business model for these HRS installations will lead to their integration into a wider, publically accessible, HRS network for multiple vehicle types
  • For buses, HRS be designed to allow for supply to a realistically scaled bus fleet of up to 20 buses for cost effective HRS operation. Both passenger car and bus categories should comply with the requirements of the directive on the deployment of alternative fuel infrastructure package (as published particularly as regards its standardization requirements. Exceptions may be allowed, if justified by the vehicle application (e.g. the captive fleet model for utility vehicles)
  • The majority of the HRS for non-fleet, public operation shall deliver 70MPa H2 for private cars and 35 MPa for buses and should be sized consistently with the deployment and business planning strategy for the country / H2Mobility programme HRS targets. Higher capacity HRS facilities are encouraged for highly frequented HRS sites. The minimum refuelling capacity should be 200 kg of daily refuelling capacity for all stations. Moveable or mobile stations can be proposed, adding flexibility and reliability in regional clusters comprising several fuelling stations
  • Some 35MPa HRS (maximum 10) can also be proposed if they are associated with a significant fleet of vehicles (passenger cars, vans, other vehicles, buses) TRL 7 or above) and can demonstrate a clear commercial plan. In this case, an up-grade strategy to 70MPa, or a bi-pressure station (35MPa and 70MPa) should be proposed if coherent with the foreseen customer(s) requirement(s) ideally before the end of the project and consistent with the business case for the station
  • A target availability of the station of 98% (measured in usable operation time of the whole filling equipment) should be adopted and bidders should demonstrate how this will be achieved
  • The cost of dispensed hydrogen offered in the project needs to be consistent with the national or regional strategy on hydrogen pricing. Cost improvements due to increased hydrogen production capacity and especially higher utilization rates of the HRS is anticipated in the course of the project (target at the pump <10€/kg excl. taxes)
  • Hydrogen purity has to be at least 99.999 %. Vehicle refuelling process must comply with SAE J2601 (2014) and IR communication needs to comply with SAE J 2799. Exceptions may be allowed, if justified by the application
  • Reliability of filling process under high throughput situations, i.e. 6 vehicles being filled in 1 hour

An average maximum funding per HRS is 700,000 €, excluding electrolysis.

On-site hydrogen production & grid support

  • Deployment of at least four electrolysers operated as a single system to demonstrate on-site production of hydrogen, while providing services to the electricity transmission and/or electricity distribution network operators. A central electrolyser may be included as part of this system, but terminal and distribution facilities from the central electrolyser to the hydrogen customer cannot be funded under this topic The choice shall take into account the following parameters:
  1. For the forecourt electrolysers priority is set to the HRS with the highest forecasted demand of hydrogen (e.g. bus depots)
  2. need to pool several electrolyser systems for grid services

Linking existing or otherwise funded electrolysers to this system is encouraged.

  • Total installed capacity of electrolysis funded by this project at least 1 MW (with at least 50% of the capacity in decentralised mode).
  • Confirm and validate feasible operation of distributed electrolysis on the HRS, including the necessary grid interfaces that capture revenue from grid balancing and (or) energy storage services
  • Optimise a system containing forecourt and central electrolysers to provide electricity grid services while producing hydrogen. Storage options at the HRS should also be envisaged.
  • The environmental performance of the system shall be foreseen including an understanding of the GHG emission impact of the grid services mode selected and mobility WTW (well to wheels) roundtrip efficiency and WTW CO2 emission assessment. Demonstration of how the 50% reduction of carbon intensity targeted is met
  • Confirm that there is a viable business model for electrolysis to deliver hydrogen at the dispenser at a maximum price of 10€/kg


The proposal should identify:

  • Customer profiles in order to establish HRS utilization patterns in an early market
  • Definition of best practices for mass market roll-out
  • Analysis of network planning decisions and in particular the customer reaction to the network, with a view to influencing future network planning activities

The learning from the project will be widely disseminated to improve the overall investor/policy maker confidence in the infrastructure roll-out and support other actors in the hydrogen mobility sector in evaluating their strategies. It should address the following points:

  • The techno-economics of the HRS facilities and vehicles deployed in the project vs. the targets identified in the national or regional roll-out strategies as well as the MAWP
  • Customer acceptance and the willingness of local populations to switch to FC vehicles when a minimum HRS coverage is in place
  • Determination of any new obstacles on the way to hydrogen mobility, particularly from a customer perspective
  • Customer profiles in order to establish likely early adopters and HRS utilization patterns in an early market

11. Hydrogen territories (FCH-03.2-2015)

To develop and deploy replicable, balanced and integrated fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in both energy and transport fields through strong partnerships between municipalities, industries and academia in European isolated territories disconnected to the main or national electrical grid.

These solutions will demonstrate an integrated hydrogen economy concept focused on small off-grid areas. The hydrogen territory proposals should primarily target transport and energy replicable demonstration applications such as vehicle fleets powered by hydrogen for public and/or private transport, including logistics and/or freight-distribution, MW capacity production of green hydrogen, hydrogen storage for balancing the grid and supply to a hydrogen refuelling station as well as large stationary fuel cell systems for distributed generation and other relevant commercial or industrial applications.

The proposals should address the following main areas:

  • Near/fully autonomous hydrogen buildings/quarters/districts: through the integration of hydrogen energy storage chain coupled with renewable energy sources and including heat valorisation, backup power solution, and when applicable, supply to a vehicle hydrogen refuelling station (retail, public transport, or fleets)
  • Zero emission mobility: through the integration of hydrogen refuelling infrastructures and provision of vehicle fleets powered by hydrogen for public and/or private transport, including logistics and/or freight-distribution. The project shall focus on hydrogen mobility applications such as public transport buses, passenger vehicles, taxi fleets, boats but also scooters or bikes to ensure a greater public visibility and awareness. The vehicles included must be designed in a way that allows producing them in large series

To be eligible, the proposals should prove a strong commitment from local authorities that reveals a long-term hydrogen-integrated urban plan strategy.

Isolated hydrogen territories should seek to create partnerships between industries, academics and cities, demonstrate replicability of the solutions and ensure funding from various sources.

Therefore each project should:

  • Be realised in at least one European isolated territory
  • Include industry, city planning authorities, research community, local Small and Medium Size Companies (SMEs)
  • In addition the project should co-involve at least one follower territory i.e. an off-grid territory willing to contribute to the process though the replication of solutions at the end of the project and having access to the know-how and results of the project and a privileged contact with the project's partners. The involvement of the follower territory should be relevant (e.g. participating in definition of user requirements and methodology of transferability of solutions, data collection etc.). The follower territory should commit to replicate, improve and follow up integration of hydrogen energy vector solutions in the urban planning. The follower(s) territory(ies) will not be eligible for FCH 2 JU funding to deploy integrated hydrogen and fuel cell solutions in the frame of the project proposals. At least one follower territory should come from a Member State or Associated Country
  • Ensure that all proposed activities will be integrated in an ambitious urban plan. The urban plan shall integrate buildings planning, energy networks, and transport/mobility planning; additional issues may be addressed as well if relevant for the territory. These plans shall be submitted with the proposal as a supporting document(s)
  • In order to ensure the success of the project, the funding for some parts of the programme or initiative in which the isolated territory project is embedded should be secured from other sources, preferably private ones, but also other EU funding sources, national or regional funding
  • Projects should develop and reinforce business plans during the project and Life Cycle Analysis that will be replicable and validated in other territories after the project
  • Consortia must have a clearly defined structure with roles and responsibilities properly spelled out for all involved entities

Proposals must also commit to scientific and technical requirements:

  • Create a “Hydrogen Territory Platform” to share smart hydrogen solution proposals, best practices, project ideas, collect data from operating systems, measurement and disclosure methodology, in order to facilitate a common footprint calculation methodology and other metrics (especially for energy saving; CO2 reductions, financial savings, number of jobs created, environmental impact etc.)
  • The performance monitoring should last for a period of long-term commitment such as 5 years. Consortia should develop an integrated and common protocol for monitoring energy, infrastructure, mobility and governance practices in the hydrogen territories, enabling documentation of improved performance over short and long term periods. The monitoring protocol should be robust and viable also after the end of the project, supporting and increasing municipal capacity over time

Projects should be co-funded by national, regional or private sources in order to demonstrate a strong commitment towards the 2020 European Energy Policy. This should be explained in the budget justification and supported with a Letter of Intent.

Expected impact:

The proposals are expected to have the following impacts:

  • deploy and demonstrate wide-scale, innovative replicable and integrated hydrogen energy solutions in both energy and transport
  • increase the energy efficiency of isolated territories and valorise the use of renewables for integration of hydrogen-energy solutions and enable active participation of consumers
  • demonstrate the positive impact of electrolysis on grid balancing
  • increase mobility efficiency with lower emissions of pollutants and CO2. The proposals will have to specify key objectives and indicators such as gCO2/km for Well to Wheel analysis
  • reduce the energy costs; The consortium will have to commit itself to reaching targets for energy cost reduction
  • respect Key Performance Indicators described in the MAWP for both hydrogen transport and energy applications and technologies used in the project
  • conclude on a business model for the use of hydrogen in isolated territories
  • decarbonise the energy system while making it more secure and stable; clear targets shall be expressed in terms of, for example, gCO2/MWh electrical and/or g CO2/MWh heat
  • create stronger links between isolated territories in Member States with various geographical and economical positions through active cooperation

It is envisaged that the proposals will also bring societal benefits:

  • Reduction of energy bills for all actors and especially for public authorities with clear objectives for both energy applications (e.g. €/MWh elec and/or heat) and for transport applications (e.g. €/km)
  • Increase quality of life by creating local jobs (that cannot be delocalised) in the isolated territories
  • Increase air quality

Any event (accidents, incidents, near misses) that may occur during the project execution shall be reported into the European reference database HIAD (Hydrogen Incident and Accident Database) at https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/engineering-databases.html.

12. Recycling and Dismantling Strategies for FCH Technologies (FCH-04.1-2015)

Research and technological development is required on the recycling and end-of-life treatment of materials and components. An initial action assessing the existing and proposing new recycling and dismantling technologies and application specific requirements will be necessary to provide guidelines for the recycling on FCH technology components. This is also an important precursor to further development and demonstration work. Besides, it is fundamental to involve stakeholders to harmonize procedures and prove the economic feasibility of the concept as early as possible.

To achieve these goals, the activities under this call should contribute to:

  • Evaluation of existing recycling and newly developed technologies and their applicability to FCH materials and components
  • Identify critical raw and rare materials and components for which new strategies and technologies have to be developed and the technological challenges related to this, taking existing EU initiatives into account (e.g. SETIS reports and activities within the European Partnership for Innovation)
  • Compliance with European and national regulations about recycling, specially the Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC)
  • Harmonization and regulatory proposals of new strategies and technologies for the phase of recycling and dismantling considering all the actors involved in the lifetime of the product (from manufacturers to dismantling, reuse and recycling entities including end/industrial users)
  • Development of Life Cycle Assessment models for fuel cells and hydrogen technologies (considering the International Reference Life Cycle Data System, ILCD, Handbook on LCA and following the HyGuide recommendations) looking for and quantifying possible energy and cost reductions linked to the proposed new strategies and technologies in the phase of recycling and dismantling
  • Business model on how to motivate, regulate, promote and make economically feasible the use of the new strategies and technologies proposed, especially considering the manufacturing industry
  • Recommendations for introduction of new processes (e.g. recovery of critical materials from FCH products) and re-adaptation of recycling centres so that the new strategies and technologies proposed can be effectively implemented
  • Event/showcase in a recycling centre showing the implementation of the new strategies and technologies proposed for at least one FCH product

Expected impact:

  • Provide guidance on the future need and focus of recycling strategies in common for both the stationary and the transport sector
  • Establishing a road map for recycling and dismantling strategies within FCH technologies
  • Harmonize procedures for the phase of recycling and dismantling at EU level
  • Pave the way for future large demonstration projects validating the business model proposed

Proposals should build upon the experience of previous projects on LCA (including activities covered under the European Green Vehicle Initiative) and consider the application of LCA methodologies developed in FC-HyGuide project.

13. Novel Education and Training Tools (FCH-04.2-2015)

The scope on this topic encompasses the development of new digital based methods to educate and train undergraduate and graduate students but also technical workforce on FCH technologies and fundamental processes behind. The e-learning concept shall include new methods based on figurative language and representations to explain detailed physical and mathematical principles and FCH technique in its complex structure. Opportunities to support conventional student lessons shall be included as well as concepts for successful self-studies.

The needed IT-structure shall be built on a web-based e-learning platform backed by open access software, and shall provide free access as a minimum during project lifetime. As several e-learning platforms, databases and digital education material already exist, the e-learning platform shall link others and include comprehensive information on educational and scientific activities in FCH-thematic area to profit from. In addition, user interfaces shall be envisaged to expand the e-learning platform also to e-science, e.g. through modelling and simulation of fundamental processes but also process modelling and simulation of technological and safety aspects. International collaboration with similar activities ongoing in US, Canada and Asia will be an advantage and can strengthen the whole FCH community.

Expected impact:

  • Development of new digital based methods and concepts to educate and train engineers and technicians on FCH technologies
  • Inclusion of figurative language and representations to support and/or explain detailed physical and mathematical principles behind the technologies (e.g. thermodynamics of hydrogen behaviour, electrochemical behaviour of fuel cells)
  • Inclusion of digital opportunities to transpose self-study on FCH technologies on different levels
  • Inclusion of virtual practicing measures to educate and motivate candidates, e.g. e-learning by doing (e.g. through virtual practicing and simple demonstration tools)
  • Interconnections with already existing e-learning platforms and digital training materials (e.g. digital lessons scripts, digital training materials, databases to specific data)
  • Provision of freely accessible e-learning platform (e.g. web-based) implementing education and training methods and concepts developed based on open access software
  • Provision of tools to maintain and update e-learning platform
  • Development of a business model and structure to ensure that the e-learning platform remains a valuable asset and continues to grow after the initial project(s) is/are completed
  • Supporting FCH industry by e-education and e-training of permanent staff in general
  • Strengthen the community by building networks for educational and informational reasons

14. Best practices guidelines on safety issues relating to current and emerging FCH Technologies (FCH-04.3-2015)

For the further successful deployment and market entry of FCH technologies is essential to ensure the safe operation of FCH applications. Contemporary FCH technology is based on integrating and assembling a mix of technical components, e.g. electrolysers, finishing devices, storage tanks, fuel cell stacks, sensors, etc. depending on the particular application the system is intended for. Each of the components bears its own critical failure aspects and safety standard. The overall safety standard of an assembly can be increased through improving safety coefficients of individual components within the assembly. The improvement of safety coefficient in general supports both the safe and harmless operation of FCH technology together with plant endurance.

Apart from safety coefficient of single components, the best practice in assembling and installing components to extensive plants is as well essential and should be based on known practical issues and safety standards. The accumulated knowledge base concerning past failures for the installation, for the operation and for the maintenance of the specific FCH technology can influence and complete best practice guidelines.

It is expected that the consortium would create comprehensible and specific best practice guidelines based on already identified practical issues arising from all kind of FCH industry including knowledge transfer of past and ongoing projects and specific research results facing that issue:

  • Best practice guidelines based on already identified practical issues
  • Implementation of new standard operating procedures and safety standards as far as available
  • Implementation of restrictions according the assembly of materials, components and interfaces
  • General procedures in order to define the best compromise of cost-reduction, safety and industrialization
  • Identification of further requirements to technical components common to both the energy and transport sectors

Expected impact:

  • Increase fail-safer of several assembled plant technology
  • Raising public confidence in FCH Technologies
  • Improvement to the operation and maintenance of FCH plant technologies by best practice guidelines
  • Influences the necessities to standardization/harmonization of materials used, components, interfaces and testing procedures in order to define the best compromise of cost-reduction, industrialization and safety aspects


Het totale budget voor deze call is EUR 123.000.000.


Informatie over wie precies voor financiering in aanmerking komt, leest u in dit document.

Info & contact

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Contact: Luc De Ridder (ldr@iwt.be | 02 432 42 38)

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